Friday, March 20, 2020
Panera case analysis Executive summary Problem Statement The restaurant industry is very competitive and Panera has to overcome the many challenges including new entrants and high expenses in order for it to continue making profits.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Panera case analysis specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Analysis There are many problems being faced by Panera and they have come up with strategies that give them an edge over other similar businesses. Some of the problems and strategies used by Panera include: The ease of accessibility of alternatives to the dishes offered at Panera. An example is coffee, which can be swapped with any stimulative drink. They have overcome this challenge by providing a relaxing and comfy environment. New entrants in the restaurant business can reduce the number of sales for Panera. They have been able to overcome this by providing a variety of dishes in their menus and changing the menus consta ntly. The buyer can choose to go elsewhere if the food is monotonous or poor service delivery. To ensure customer satisfaction, the service at Panera is excellent and the quality of food exceptional. This way, their rating by law is high, and attractive to consumers. To overcome challenges that may arise due to unreliability of the suppliers, Panera buys its ingredients from multiple businesses, and does its own delivery of the bread. Panera faces high transport costs due to the few branches located within the dough delivery region. The distance covered requires that the tracks be refrigerated, which is quite expensive. Alternatives For Panera to maintain its competitive edge over similar businesses, it has to come up with workable strategies such as: Venturing in the catering business more, so that it can increase its sales and draw more people to its restaurants. Provide a broader menu to accommodate more fruits and other healthy dishes suitable for dinner, so that they can incr ease sales during off-peak hours. Recommendation To reduce the expenses incurred due to long travel distances in delivery of dough, Panera should open more branches in these regions, so that the cost of delivery can be distributed. Opening cafes in new areas would also increase their market share. Implementation The opening of new cafes and increasing the variety in menus would require strategic advertising. Panera is known for providing an aesthetic environment and healthy foods. This should be their primary focus when advertising. Expansion of their catering services in new communities would also help to draw more people to their restaurants. Panera case analysis Introduction About $1 billion is spent by US consumers at eating establishments, making the restaurant industry very competitive. There are many fears in the industry including the struggle to make profits as well as the entry of new competitors. The main competitors of Panera in specialty foods and fast informal dining are Subway, Starbucks and McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s. The competition that Panera faces comes from various directions, including both the local and national markets (Locke, 2008). One of the strategies used by Panera in order to stay profitable is the regular review and revision of their menus. This is aimed at meeting the requirements of the different seasons of the year, satisfying the changing preferences of the customers and maintaining the interest of the usual customers (Locke, 2008).Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Main problems facing the firm and their solutions Threat imposed by alternatives One of the problems facing Panera is the availability of substitutes to their coffee selections and atmosphere. The fact that food is a basic need means that people have to consume something, which implies that the market is ever present. The problem lies in the variety of pla ces available for people to eat (Locke, 2008). The atmosphere at Panera is one that allows for people to work and hold meetings. The alternative to this is that people can choose to do their work from the comfort of their houses or meet in the workplace (Locke, 2008). Panera has overcome this by providing a distraction free and serene surrounding that is necessary to perform well in their duties. Coffee is one of the main menu items for Panera, and it can be easily substituted with a power drink. The provision of such an alternative could limit the number of people going for coffee at Panera, though the chances of switching from one to the other is low, and the market for coffee is therefore not diminishing (Locke, 2008). Threat imposed by new restaurant businesses This is a threat since the people who can get into the business is unlimited due to the few barriers to entry including minimal government regulations, no need for a patent and lack of technological shortcomings. There ar e new restaurants opening up in various places due to the high demand imposed by customers who like eating in new and different places. At the same time, the restaurants are short lived due to poor delivery of services, including menus that do not meet customer needs and dining events that are unsatisfactory. The motivation for opening up new restaurants is consumer adventure, since consumers like to visit new places. Panera keeps up with new business ventures by altering their menus regularly, in order to meet the periodical needs and diets of the clients (Thompson, 2009). Bargaining power of the buyer The consumers have access to information regarding value and nourishment which makes the restaurant industry very competitive. The patrons can easily switch to other restaurants if their preferences are not satisfied, which means that the conditions and quality maintained by these restaurants must be high and satisfactory. It is easy for a customer to change their eating place from P anera, since the only variable may be the cost of food (Thompson, 2009). Panera is well aware of this, and solves the problem by providing the customers with a wide variety of menu items. The customers can therefore enjoy various items on different days of the week.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Panera case analysis specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The power of the consumer is greatly increased due to the accessibility of information regarding the restaurant industry. The food products are provided with nutrition information, and this is appealing to the customers. Restaurants are also required by law to post inspection results in a visible place, and therefore poor results may be bad for business (Thompson, 2009). Bargaining power of the supplier Panera makes their bread on a daily basis as it is their number one product. They also have their own transport tracks that provide the bread to stores within a 500 mile radius daily, which makes the delivery fully controllable (Thompson, 2009). To increase their efficiency, they ensure that the suppliers have limited control over the cost of products. This is achieved by contracting various suppliers for the ingredients. This means that the shift from one supplier to the other is relatively easy for them, which ensures that the suppliers making the deliveries do so promptly and error free. Panera is able to control the costs of supplies by use of contracts with both the suppliers and distributors. Panera is therefore very cautious with its presentation and reliability to the market, by ensuring that the prices of supplies remain unchanged, using contracts (Thompson, 2009). Strategies used by Panera One of their main strategies is the provision of a menu with wide variety, and good service delivery in an inviting ambience. People who lack the time to dine in traditional restaurants appreciate quality foods contained in PaneraÃ¢â¬â¢s menus. The pr ovision of freshly baked bread is also advantageous to Panera, since the customers can be assured that there is no musty bread. Panera provides a comfortable setting, which includes comfortable seating and the provision of Wi-Fi connections, suitable for customers during any time of the day. This, added to their strategic location in the urban and suburban areas encourages the customers to stay longer (Locke, 2008). Panera has ensured consistency in the quality of its products especially bread, by creating strong networks with the suppliers. They also have a variety of suppliers who provide them with the essential products, which denies them leverage, therefore enabling costs within the franchises to remain low. The facilities responsible for the supply of dough are strategically located throughout the country, and this ensures fresh supply of dough (Locke, 2008). Panera provides its customers with a unique dining experience. This is achieved by welcoming atmosphere, the designs of the cages as well as the variety of foods provided in the menus.Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Unlike other restaurants that prefer to remain small, Panera restaurants are large, which is advantageous to them since they can prepare a variety of meals, and therefore tend to attract customers with a variety of taste. Their large operations allow them to keep their prices lower than the traditional restaurants, and provide fast delivery of meals, which allows the customers to enjoy their meals and ambiance with no rush (Locke, 2008). One of the problems faced by Panera is the huge sum of money spent in transportation of fresh dough to its cafes. The distance travelled by the tracks is at least 300 miles, and the deliveries are made to only six branches. Due to the distance, the temperature of the tracks has to be controlled. Investors in Panera have been discouraged by the large capital requirement, since potential owners are required to simultaneously open twelve restaurants. This requires people to invest about $1 million. Panera provides a variety of dishes in its menus, whic h broadens its target market, enabling them to create loyalty within its customers (Locke, 2008). Current issues facing Panera Increasing competition in the fast-casual food industry has been one of the biggest contributors to the reducing profits at Panera. At the same time, their stringent operating criterion has raised the expenses, with the costs of administration being much higher. Panera has penetrated larger markets though it is unable to open stores faster than the competition, due to the requirement that every new owner must open a minimum of fifteen cafes at once, which is expensive for them (Locke, 2008). Due to this reason, Panera has been unable to penetrate individual communities that can provide them with more opportunities. Recommendations The fast-casual dining industry is very competitive, and in order for Panera to minimize its expenses and maximize on profits, it needs to: Open more cafes within a particular region Open new cafes to cater for individual communit ies and Invest more in the catering services Advertise the use of natural ingredients in their meals Provide menus for off-peak hours One of the expenses that Panera experiences is the transportation of dough over long distances to very few stores, two in Miami and several in Dallas (Thompson, 2009). In order to compete with the other restaurants like Starbucks, they need to open mores stores in these areas. This will increase the number of stores within the travelling distance of the dough tracks, hence improving on the efficiency of delivery and reducing the overall expenses. In addition to this, there are many markets that Panera has neglected, which would appreciate their artistic and lovely environment as well as their quality meals. Such a move would result in the creation of more cafes by the owners in the region, and their familiarity with the population would enable them to cater for the varying needs of the patrons, allowing them to gain the loyalty of the masses (Thompso n, 2009). New York would be a nice place to open a few cafes. The catering services would be in a position to expand due to the good reputation that Panera has within the societies, and its expansion in new and current markets. Panera would be able to meet the needs of its consumers easily by opening more cafes, which would also increase its market share and consequently bring more people to its restaurants. Expansion through catering would be good for Panera to grow its restaurantÃ¢â¬â¢s brand. Advertising is important for the success of any business. Since Panera is known for the provision of a diverse and healthy menu, advertising by letting people know of their use of natural ingredients would attract more patrons to their restaurants. They would also attract more customers if they expanded their menus in order to accommodate more options that are suitable for patrons who prefer to dine during off-peak hours, therefore increasing their sales (Thompson, 2009). Implementation of the strategies Expansion of the catering division would allow Panera to venture into new markets without changing their brand image, therefore increasing their sales. By taking advantage of their already popular healthy meals, with many vegetables, Panera should increase its variety of fruit choices in the menus, which would draw more people in to the restaurants. In addition to this, their menu contains healthy chicken, antibiotic-free, though most of its patrons are not aware (Thompson, 2009). A nice marketing strategy would be advantageous in making people aware of the healthy dishes that are available at Panera. This would definitely increase their sales since most people prefer to shop in groceries, and would not mind having a good healthy meal without preparing it themselves. The busiest hours for Panera are the lunch hours, due to their menus. More sales would be achieved if they were to introduce suitable dishes for dinner, which is an off-peak time. One of the dishes that could be added to the menus is a chicken dish or healthy pasta, which would complement their brand image (Thompson, 2009). References Locke, B. (2008). Panera Bread Company. Retrieved from https://scribd.com/doc/30761424/Panera-Case-Analysis Thompson, A. A. (2009). Panera Bread Company. Crafting and Executing Strategy: Concepts and Cases, 17th Edition.
Tuesday, March 3, 2020
Nushu, a Woman-Only Language of China Nushu or Nu Shu means, literally, Ã¢â¬Å"womanÃ¢â¬â¢s writingÃ¢â¬ in Chinese.Ã The script was developed by peasant women in Hunan Province, China, and used in Jiangyong county, but probably also in nearby Daoxian and Jianghua counties.Ã It nearly became extinct before its very recent discovery.Ã The oldest items are from the very early 20th century, though the language is assumed to have much older roots. The script was often used in embroidery, calligraphy and handicrafts created by women.Ã It is found written on paper (including letters, written poetry and on objects such as fans) and embroidered on fabric (including on quilts, aprons, scarves, handkerchiefs). Ã Objects were often buried with women or were burned. While sometimes characterized as a language, it might better be considered a script, as the underlying language was the same local dialect used also by the men in the area, and usually by the men written in Hanzi characters. Nushu, like other Chinese characters, is written in columns, with characters running from top to bottom in each column and columns written from the right to the left.Ã Chinese researchers count between 1000 and 1500 characters in the script, including variants for the same pronunciation and function; Orie Endo (below) has concluded that there are about 550 distinct characters in the script.Ã Chinese characters are usually ideograms (representing ideas or words); Nushu characters are mostly phonograms (representing sounds) with some ideograms.Ã Four types of strokes make u the characters: dots, horizontals, verticals and arcs. According to Chinese sources, Gog Zhebing, a teacher in South Central China, and linguistics professor Yan Xuejiong, discovered calligraphy used in the Jiangyong prefecture.Ã In another version of the discovery, an old man, Zhou Shuoyi, brought it to attention, preserving a poem from ten generations back in his family and beginning to study the writing in the 1950s.Ã The Cultural Revolution, he said, interrupted his studies, and his 1982 book brought it to the attention of others. The script was well known locally as Ã¢â¬Å"womanÃ¢â¬â¢s writingÃ¢â¬ or nÃ ¼shuÃ but it had not before come to the attention of linguists, or at least of academia. At that time, about a dozen women survived who understood and could write Nushu. Japanese professor Orie Endo of Bunkyo University in Japan has been studying Nushu since the 1990s. She was first exposed to the existence of the language by a Japanese linguistics researcher, Toshiyuki Obata, and then learned more in China at Beijing University from Professor Prof. Zhao Li-ming.Ã Zhao and Endo traveled to Jiang Yong and interviewed elderly women to find people who could read and write the language. Orie Endo: 1999 research report (English): Endangered System of WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s Writing from Hunan China (presented at the Association of Asian Studies Conference, March, 1999.Orie Endo: Nushu in 2011, including information on a Japanese-made documentary Ã¢â¬Å"The Chinese WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s Script for Writing Sorrow.Ã¢â¬ The area where it has been used is one where the Han people and the Yao people have lived and intermixed, including intermarriage and mixing of cultures.Ã It was also an area, historically, of good climate and successful agriculture. The culture in the area was, like most of China, male-dominated for centuries, and women were not permitted an education.Ã There was a tradition of Ã¢â¬Å"sworn sisters,Ã¢â¬ women who were not biologically related but who committed to friendship.Ã In traditional Chinese marriage, exogamy was practiced: a bride joined her husbandÃ¢â¬â¢s family, and would have to move, sometimes far away, not seeing her birth family again or only rarely. The new brides were thus under the control of their husbands and mothers-in-law after they married.Ã Their names did not become part of genealogies. Many of the Nushu writings are poetic, written in a structured style, and were written about marriage, including about the sorrow of separation. Other writings are letters from women to women, as they found, through this female-only script, a way to keep in communication with their female friends.Ã Most express feelings and many are about sorrow and misfortune. Because it was secret, with no references to it found in documents or genealogies, and many of the writings buried with the women who possessed the writings, itÃ¢â¬â¢s not authoritatively known when the script began.Ã Some scholars in China accept the script not as a separate language but as a variant on Hanzi characters. Others believe it may have been a remnant of a now-lost script of eastern China. Nushu declined in the 1920s when reformers and revolutionaries began to expand education to include women and to raise womenÃ¢â¬â¢s status. While some of the older women attempted to teach the script to their daughters and granddaughters, most did not consider it valuable and did not learn.Ã Thus, fewer and fewer women could preserve the custom. The NÃ ¼shu Culture Research Center in China was created to document and study Nushu and the culture around it, and to publicize its existence.Ã A dictionary of 1,800 characters including variants was created by Zhuo Shuoyi in 2003; it also includes notes on grammar.Ã At least 100 manuscripts are known outside of China. An exhibition in China that opened in April, 2004, focused on Nushu. Ã China to reveal female-specific language to public - Peoples Daily, English Edition
Sunday, February 16, 2020
Current issues in advertising (Marketing communications) - Essay Example arketing few of which include the statistical techniques that need to be properly fitted in to the equation, the usage of proper rules and methodologies for selecting the right target audiences, the manner in which they are segregated on the basis of their roles and positions in the society and not to forget the buying patterns of them as well, their decision making abilities in the market, the manner in which economical changes are shaping up the whole society and the drifts that are happening as a result, the changing consumer lifestyles with the advent of technological options and grouping all of these in a single database or a combination of databases which would make the work of the marketing communication practitioner easy. Rather the other way around has been seen, where the practitioner has been running from one end to another in the wake of devising the best possible database which will target the right people at the right time with the right offering. It is a difficult prop osition that has to be managed day in day out by the marketing communication practitioner but one that needs to be in place so as to enable growth on the part of the company and the link that is present between the business (company) and the customers that are being targeted upon by it. Database marketing is one of the most powerful tools that look at building a strong rapport between the company and its stakeholders, not only the customers but also the ones who have invested in its stocks, though in an indirect manner. The challenges thus faced account to problems ranging from handling all these records and files on not only a sequential basis but also that correlates with each other and thus comes up with results which precisely target the exact individuals (prospective or otherwise, customer) that have to be sent the newsletters, direct mail, brochures and so on and so forth. This also means that database marketing looks at revolving the glitches that may arise at some point in time
Sunday, February 2, 2020
How Important is it for managers today to have a good understanding of the process of globalization - Essay Example (Steger, 2003: p. 37) With regards to the large supply of available work force in the labour market, medium- and large-scale businesses are taking advantage of hiring competitive employees. Likewise, it is also crucial for businesses today to actively participate in the trading of goods and services in the world market. As part of discussing the valid reasons that makes it important for modern managers today to have a good understanding of the process of globalization, a literature review will be conducted in the study. To give the readers a better understanding of the subject matter, the first part of the literature review will discuss about the general information and the main purpose of globalization followed by analyzing the factors that makes it important for modern managers to have a good understanding of the globalization process. To determine how well modern managers understand the globalization process, a structured personal interview with two selected managers combined with a Globalization is Ã¢â¬Å"a process of interaction and integration among people, companies, and governments of different countries which is driven by international trade and investment through the use of information technology.Ã¢â¬ (The Levin Institute, 2008) Basically, the concept of globalization allows business people to maximize their available financial resources by taking advantage of the low-cost products and services that are readily available from developing countries. Because of the differences in monetary exchange rate, large-scale businesses from developed countries are able to purchase more homogenous products and highly competitive human resources at a much lesser price. Therefore, large multinational companies could easily compete with small-scale local businesses by being able to offer homogenous products to its target
Saturday, January 25, 2020
Causes Of The Genocide In Bosnia In 1980, the president Josip Tito of Yugoslavia died. After the loss of their president, Yugoslavia had political and economic chaos. Slobodan Milosevic became the leader of Serbia in 1987. He was a strong Serb nationalist and encouraged his beliefs in Serbia and in other republics with large Serb communities. The Serbs in Bosnia were not happy feeling like they were now part of Milosevics Greater Serbia. The Yugoslavian Army mostly had Serbs. Radovan Karadzic led Serbs who built their own Republica Srpska in the East, while a Bosnian Serb army was in control of the other Ã ¾ of the country, driving out most of the Bosnian Croats. Then the European Union tried to help both sides, and failed. The U.N. didnt want to get involved, but helped a little by providing some troop convoys for humanitarian aid. They later decided to help more by providing six safe areas. The Serbs invaded five of the six safe areas and ethnically cleansed them. The Background: Bosnia is one of the several small countries that emerged from the break-up of Yugoslavia, a multicultural country created after World War One. Yugoslavia was composed of ethnic and religious groups that had been historical rivals, including the Serbs (Orthodox Christians), Croats (Catholics) and ethnic Albanians (Muslims). During World War Two, Yugoslavia was invaded by Nazi Germany and was separated. Following Germanys defeat, Tito reunified Yugoslavia by merging many countries. Tito, a Communist, was a strong leader who maintained ties with the Soviet Union and the United States during the Cold War, playing one superpower against the other while obtaining financial assistance and other aid from both. After his death in 1980 and without his strong leadership, Yugoslavia quickly plunged into political and economic chaos. Organizers: In the late 1980s, a new leader by the name of Slobodan Milosevic came to power in Yugoslavia. He used religious hatred to control the people by sparking old tensions between the Serbians and Muslims. He took advantage of complaints from the Orthodox Catholic Serbs by taking control of the country Kosovo, where the Serbs were the minority. Milosevic then turned his focus to Croatia, a country with 12 percent Serbs. With the assistance of Serbian guerrillas, Milosevic invaded the small country under the pretenses of protecting the Serbs. Milosevics motives for this genocide were strongly based on retaliation. Many Serbian citizens had been subject to genocide during World War Two and they finally had a chance to get even with their enemies. After 13 years at power, the Yugoslavian nations revolted and a national strike followed. Milosevic was tried on the following counts in 2002: genocide; complicity in genocide; deportation; murder; persecutions on political, racial or religious grounds; inhumane acts/forcible transfer; extermination; imprisonment; torture; willful killing; unlawful confinement; willfully causing great suffering; unlawful deportation or transfer; extensive destruction and appropriation of property, not justified by military necessity and carried out unlawfully and wantonly; cruel treatment; plunder of public or private property; attacks on civilians; destruction or willful damage done to historic monuments and institutions dedicated to education or religion; unlawful attacks on civilian objects. Mi losevic died on March 11, 2006, at the U.N. war crimes tribunal detention center. Victims: In the Bosnian genocide, hundreds of thousands of people were victimized. About 80% of these people were Bosnian Muslims. After The Yugoslav Republic of Bosnia declared its independence, Bosnian Serbs along with the Yugoslav army attacked the Bosnian and Croatian civilians. Between 1992 and 1995, Serbia decided to ethnically cleanse the Bosnian land by removing all Bosnian Muslims systematically. Many were forced into concentration camps. The Muslims were tortured, starved, and eventually murdered. Over the war, about one million Bosnian Muslims were forced out of their homes. In 1993, the Security Council in the United Nation had Sarajevo, Srebrenica, Goradze, and other Muslim territories in safe areas that were protected by United Nation peacekeepers. At a safe area in Srebrenica, Serbs held a very large massacre. Many of the Muslims escaped the fighting by running away. The men that were able to fight were kept behind and killed. The elderly, women, and children were taken to a Muslim controlled territory on busses. Once the massacre ended, the bodies were moved by bulldozers by the Serbs in attempts to conceal the evidence. World Response: As a result, U.S. President George Bush chose not to get involved militarily, instead recognizing the independence of Slovenia and Croatia. In April 1992, the U.S. and European community recognized Bosnias independence. Even though media showed the secret camps, mass killings, and destruction of historic architecture in Bosnia, the world community remained mostly indifferent. The United Nations finally responded by imposing economic sanctions on Serbia and the U.N. also deployed its troops to protect the distribution of food and medicine to dispossessed Muslims, however, the U.N. strictly told troops not to interfere with military against the Serbs. Through 1993, the U.S. and European Community still hadnt taken any military action until August 30, 1995. On this day, The U.S. led a massive NATO bombing campaign in response to the killings. Aftermath: Top of Form Peace negotiations were held in Dayton, Ohio, and an agreement was signed in December 1995. Bosnia is now divided into a Croat-Muslim Federation and Republika Srpska. A NATO peace-keeping Implementation Force of 60,000 was deployed; it was later replaced by a NATO Stabilization Force. The war in Bosnia led deaths of tens of thousands men and boys that left the country without enough workers to keep their economy stable. Bosnian Croats and Bosnian Muslims who make up the Federation of Croats and Muslins are not getting along because of their political and economic differences. There is a rotating presidency of a Bosnian Croat, Bosnian Serb, and a Bosnian Muslim every three years that many experts consider to be dangerous. The ethnic differences between Muslims, Croats, and Serbs are still keeping the nation of Bosnia-Herzegovina from being one, because they all want more governmental control over the other. The effects of the Bosnian Genocide still float in the background for this troubled country. Because there is still ethnic disturbance in Bosnia, there is fear that genocide could occur once more in the torn country. By now, over 200,000 Muslim civilians have been systematically murdered. More than 20,000 are missing and feared dead, while 2,000,000 have become refugees.
Friday, January 17, 2020
Introduction The adult literacy rate is 51 percent The average number of teacher per primary school is only 4 Average number of students per primary school is 273 The primary teacher-student ratio is 67:1 Source: Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics 2 Development in Primary Education Adoption of an education policy in 2000 Five-year cycle to an eight-year cycle by 2010 Free and compulsory primary education for all children; Free education for girls up to grade eight; Free books for all children at primary level; 3 Development in Primary Education A food-for-education programme Primary Education Stipend Programme (PESP) Creation of a separate Primary and Mass Education Division (PMED) A proliferation of non-formal education programme by NGOs, and 4 Achievements in Primary Education Net enrolment rate has reached 80 percent Over 70 percent of the students now complete the five-year primary cycle 60 percent are present in school on an average day Source: Campaign for Popular Education & The University Press Ltd. 5 State of Corruption, Mismanagement and Irregularities in Primary Education All these programmes are infested with endless flaws and irregularities. TIB Household Corruption Survey identified the education sector as fifth corrupt sectors (2002) TIB Corruption Database identified the education sector as the third most corrupt sectors (2004) TIB and Committees of Concerned Citizens (CCCs) conducted a Report Card Survey in the primary education to identify the gaps and flaws in our basic education level as well as to locate and dispose of corruption. 6 Committees of Concerned Citizens (CCCs) TIB developed six Committees of Concerned Citizens (CCCs) Mymensingh Kishoregonj Nalitalari Madhupur Muktagacha, Jamalpur The main objective of the formation of the CCCs is to create local groups which would serve as local lobbyists seeking to curb corruption, instigate reform and promote integrity in the public service delivery system. 7 Sources of Data Corruption in Primary Education: A Report Card Survey, TIB (2001) Report card survey is a simple approach for organizing public feed back Report Cards are designed to assess the nature, types, extent and implications of corruption, and at the same time facilitate stakeholders participatory movement for improving the quality of service in the sector. 8 Name of Areas and number of different respondents for the Report Card Survey (2001) Respondents Area Mymensingh Muktagachha Jamalpur Kishoregonj Nalitabari Madhupur Gouripur Sharishabar Total Headmaster 23 25 20 21 19 20 21 22 171 Student 115 124 120 120 120 120 113 134 966 Guardian 115 124 120 120 120 120 113 134 966 Total 253 273 260 261 259 260 247 290 2103 9 Sources of Data Corruption in Bangladesh: A Household Survey, TIB (2002) Information from 3030 Households Corruption Database: TIB (2004) Information from 26 Dailies Corruption in Bangladesh: A Household Survey, TIB (2005) Information from 3000 Households Quality with Equity: The Primary Education Agenda, Campaign for Popular Education Bangladesh (2005) 8212 Respondents 10 Corruption in admission in primary education TIB Report card Survey (2001) shows that 6. 52% of the primary students paid Tk 63/- on average as admission fees . TIB Household Corruption Survey (2005) showed that 40% primary students had to pay 209 taka as admission fees 11 Irregular subscription/fees TIB Report Card Survey (2001) revealed that each student of primary schools had to pay 47 taka on average subscription for at least nine purposes which is illegal TIB Household Corruption Survey (2005) revealed that each student of primary schools had to pay 58 taka on average subscription for at least nine purposes which is illegal 12 Percentage of students who paid illegal fees 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0. Sp or ts Bo ok s rit ua ls m ot io n ex am ex ta in m lE po se s th er pu r am . xa en t En te r Pr om 2n d Re lig io us m 1s tT er Te Fi na rm 2001 2005 Source Corruption in Primary Education: A Report Card Survey (2001) Corruption in Bangladesh: A Household Survey (2005) O 13 Amount of average illegal fess 2001 30 27 24 21 18 15 12 9 6 3 0 m ion ok s . ex am or ts t en ls r it ua us io O th er inm lE Bo ex Sp os es pu rp am xa ot om Pr te En 2005 er m Fi na tT Te rm rta 1s d 2n Source Corruption in Primary Education: A Report Card Survey (2001) Corruption in Bangladesh: A Household Survey (2005). Re l ig 14 Corruption in Food for Education Program 16 % of the cases the criterion was not observed 15. 5% of the students paid on an average Taka 32 to be included in the programme Subscription was collected by teachers, Dealers and from Others On average every student received 2. 47 Kgs food grain less every time Missing 1241 tons of food grain in 8 Upazillas equivalent to 12 million taka (1USD=52 taka) Source: Corruption in Primary Education:A Report Card Survey (2001) 15 Primary Education Stipend Programme (PESP). Started from July 2002 substituting the former Food for Education Programme (FFE). Aim of attracting and keeping more children, especially of the poor Forty percent of the students in rural area are eligible to receive Tk 100 stipend per month Identification of 40 percent of pupil enrolled in grades 1-5 from the poorest households by School Management Committee (SMC) To remain eligible for the monthly stipend, a student has to attain minimum 40 percent marks in term examinations and have 85 percent monthly class attendance. 16 Corruption in Primary Education Stipend Programme (PESP). Over two-thirds of the children from the poorest category were not selected to be recipients of stipend; 27 percent of children from affluent households received the stipend 32. 4% primary school students who have been enrolled for stipend had to pay 40 taka for their enrolment 46 percent of the stipend holders did not receive the full amount of stipend Source Corruption in Bangladesh: A Household Survey (2005) Source: Campaign for Popular Education & The University Press Ltd. 17 Corruption in Upazilla Primary Education Offices 34% of the responding headmasters said that bribes are occasionally required to be paid 13% said that they have to do so every time. Source: Corruption in Primary Education:A Report Card Survey (2001) 18 Consequences of corruption Concerned officials of primary education collected 19. 85 million taka (1USD=52 taka) as illegal subscription from 8 areas (out of 500 areas). Concerned primary education officials collected 546 million taka (1USD=60 taka) as illegal fees from all over Bangladesh Concerned PESP officials collected 25 million taka from primary students to enroll them in the PESP from all over Bangladesh . Source Corruption in Primary Education: A Report Card Survey (2001) Corruption in Bangladesh: A Household Survey (2005) 19 Perpetrators of Corruption 1. Teachers 2. Food dealers 3. Management committee of institutions 4. Employees of institutions Source Corruption in Primary Education: A Report Card Survey (2001) Corruption in Bangladesh: A Household Survey (2005) 20 Causes of corruption 1. Absence of accountability 2. Discretionary power 3. Lack of transparency 4. Monopoly power 5. Influence of powerful people Source Corruption in Bangladesh: A Household Survey (2002) 21 The objectives of CCCs advocacy activities on Primary Education. Ensuring quality education in all classrooms implying that there shall remain no room for pursuing any kind of ill motives for personal gain of any concerned party; Promoting collection of reasonable and standard fees in all primary schools; Ensuring that schools keep proper record of official fund collection and expenditure; Promoting the effectiveness of School Management Committees (SMC) and the Parent-Teacher Associations (PTA) to work as watchdog bodies for the betterment of local-level education; Suggesting strategies for meaningfully reducing the rate of dropouts. 22. TIB initiatives to curb corruption from Primary education: Success of CCCs The advocacy undertaken by CCCs for achieving the above objectives are at three level; Firstly, the CCCs are working to increase mass people through mobile theatres, mothersÃ¢â¬â¢ gathering and parents-teachers gathering etc. Secondly, the CCCs are trying to build coalition with School Management Committee (SMC), Upazilla Education Committee, and with the Civil Society. Finally, the CCCs are working with the concerned officials including Upazilla Education Offices, District Education Offices, Upazilla and District administrations etc. 23 TIB initiatives to curb corruption from Primary education: Success of CCCs Most of the upazilla primary education offices have taken initiatives for curbing corruption in their offices. As a result, corruption has somewhat reduced in the offices of the upazilla primary education offices. A number of teachers informed the CCCs that they are not giving bribes in the education office for their services. Because of CCC advocacy, a number of education offices decided on a fixed amount of fees for various purposes. The teachers are no longer collecting illegal fees from the students. 24 TIB initiatives to curb corruption from Primary education: Success of CCCs The CCCs have been invited by the Upazilla Education offices to participate in preparing yearly plan. The concerned education officials have requested the CCCs to help them to form the School Management Committee (SMC); The CCCs obtained formal consent to work with two Primary Schools for turning them into Ã¢â¬Å"Islands of IntegrityÃ¢â¬ in each area; Many facets of the local education system appeared to have acted on the CCC-designed recommendations. 25 TIB initiatives to curb corruption from Primary education: Success of CCCs TIBÃ¢â¬â¢s suggestions, voiced via CCCs, were taken seriously and changes to record-keeping systems were made as per CCC recommendations; the CCCs had 15 specific reform-oriented recommendations; CCCs have been successful in persuading school authorities to clearly specify the school tuition fees, the rate of stipends, and supplying books on time, at no extra cost to guardians. It was made clear that the CCCs would continue to act as watchdogs for ensuring transparency and accountability; 26 Further Information Md. Sydur Rahman Molla Senior Programme Officer Research Department Transparency International Bangladesh Progress Tower (5th Floor), H # 01, R # 23, Gulshan Ã¢â¬â1, Dhaka Ã¢â¬â1212 PH: 880 2 9884811, 8826036, Fax: 880 2 9884811 Email: srmolla@ti-bangladesh. org Web: www. ti-bangladesh. org 27 Thanks 28.
Thursday, January 9, 2020
Essential elements of the Christian worldview are Faith, Love, Forgiveness and Living in Christ. These key elements are fundamental to ChristÃ¢â¬â¢s teachings and also reflect my own worldview. These four elements are an integral part of a Christian believerÃ¢â¬â¢s life and defines our relationship with God. The fourth element, Living in Christ, is comprised of many sub-elements like praise, prayer, and bearing witness. These sub-elements could be described as fruits of a ChristianÃ¢â¬â¢s believerÃ¢â¬â¢s daily life. Too much of the Christian worldviewÃ¢â¬â¢s attention is focused on reconciling the Bible with science and archaeological discoveries when it should be focused on redemption. The theme of the Bible could be summarized into four categories Creation,Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦God created man in His own image. Some traces of God s characteristics can be seen in mankind such as love, kindness, compassion and justice. Humanity The Bible says that man, made in the image of God, is also spirit. It is manÃ¢â¬â¢s spirit that communes with the Holy Spirit. God also gave man a free will which allows man to love God willingly. Man created in the image of God has remnants of his character which includes the capability to love, a reason of a high level, and communicate with God. Man was also created with a sense of justice and morality. However, sin also resides in our nature and led to the fall of Adam and Eve. The purpose of man is to praise and worship God, proclaim his glory, and to accomplish his will.Ã¢â¬ ¦ And whom I have created for My glory, Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ (Isaiah 43:7 New International Version). God created all things in harmony. He established a perfect creation that he loves and over which he rules. The highest honor is given to mankind as the only part of creation made in GodÃ¢â¬â¢s image. Humanity was created to love as God loves, to worship and praise his glory and commune with him as he does with us. However, much of humanity is overly concerned with their own self-serving, self-centered agenda which is a form of idolatry. Many individuals worship whatever their life is ordered around, failing to see it in the light of the glory of God. Humanity relentlessly departs from the path God had intended for them. TrueShow MoreRelatedMain Components Of The Christian Worldview1412 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesGospel Essentials A worldview is the way a person views and interprets the world around them. Life experiences and spiritual influences play a part in forming oneÃ¢â¬â¢s worldview. A personÃ¢â¬â¢s worldview helps them to determine beliefs on creation, humanity, morals and what happens after death. According to Waddell, (2014) Ã¢â¬Å"Worldviews are also like lenses found in eyeglasses that serve as the means through which a person sees the world.Ã¢â¬ (para. 43) In this paper, the main components of the Christian worldviewRead MoreThe Christian Worldview And What Impacts Those Beliefs Have On My Own Worldview1290 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesare many essential elements of the Christian worldview. God is the largest element due to His place as the foundation of the power and influence. God created humanity and allowed for their fall. He positioned Jesus Christ to save humanity from itself, satisfy divine judgment, and to reconcile their relationship with God. This paper will explain how each component is essential to the Christian worldview and what impacts those beliefs have on my own worldview. 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Ã£â¬â¬Ã£â¬â¬Ã£â¬â¬Ã£â¬â¬One might also maintain the truth of biblical teaching, and yet affirm elements of God s wisdom variously presentRead MoreComparing Different Worldviews And Their Effect On Society1216 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesBefore comparing and contrasting different worldviews and their effect on society, it is important for us to understand what we are studying. What is a worldview? A worldview can be defined by many different definitions. But broadly, it is a way through which you see and interpret the world and the things around you. It is a mental mode of reality from which we develop ideas and theories about the world. It answers questions: What are humans? Why are we here? What is our purpose? 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